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Education, Literature, History, Science

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Pls need help Cinoscraft 03/28/2020 (Sat) 12:19:43 No. 69 [Reply]
Please guy You can recommended book of history of africa ? in pdf format of course Pls... in spanish much better
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>>69 There is a nice book on the country of Burkina Faso (from independence to after the 2014 revolt) called «Burkina Faso: A History of Power, Protest and Revolution» by Ernest Harsch, really good read.
"Libgen" es la mejor página para conseguir libros digitales y gratuitos. Algunos archivos podrían no subirse aquí por estar muy pesados, busca allí por tu cuenta.
>>5020 Basado
Para una historia semi-biografica de Sankara especificamente, el libro de Ludo Martens es muy bien y creo que hay una traducción en castellano.

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studying mysticism/esotericism vs studying cosmology,physics and maths Anonymous 10/12/2020 (Mon) 17:54:42 No. 4959 [Reply]
I'm a celibate man(thus have high brain power)and i want to find the ultimate truth to life. I have limited time and two options: >stuyding esotericism,magick,mystic treatises and meditation techniques,the vedas,medieval books etc OR >cosmology,neurology,biology,history of life on earth,maths,etc Which should I devote my time to?
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>>4959 study logic and scientific critique, then post-critical science shit, learn meditation but as a tool to make your mind sharper thats all, it will give you no knowledge (Except about ... meditation), and then get into whatever the fuck u want, u should be insulated from wasting too much time on obvious bullshit if u start out by learning how to think and learn properly. for "truth of life" tho, read philosophy ffs, all the esoteric stuff is only really appealing to people with inflated egos because you can read whatever you want into it and feel like a genius and like ur learning hidden knowledge. Philosophy (good philosophy...) does the same shit that (honest) mystics and religious figures tried to do, but in more plain language for the modern world
>>4996 Start with the Africans.
Unironically (whether or not that's in the spirit of this thread) every human should know a lot about a little and a little about a lot. So pick what you want to be an expert in, and read/discuss/investigate deeply in that, but also acquaint yourself with what we've learned more broadly and bring a bunch of different perspectives to bear on what you know best.
Why not both?
>>4959 One gets you cred on the most mid-wit level boards on 4chan while the other can net you a job, and an actual understanding, albeit still probably reductionist, understanding of the world.

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Comrade 05/18/2020 (Mon) 19:52:02 No. 1687 [Reply]
What is morality to you? Do you think at the end of your life you will be judged by a god for your actions?
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>>2735 While that is an objective decision, it is made by relying on subjective values: >Pro: They die How do I decide that they must die? Most likely because they did something to offend me, however what it was, and how I decide that it was enough for murder, is down to my moral values. >Jail = Impossible approach to revolution Why is revolution objectively good? A porky wouldn't want to do it. A libertarian true believer would find the authoritarianism needed for it abhorrent and so on. It is, again, a moral question. >Don't stab them unless it's a justifiable motive Exactly. So how do you justify it? You can only be objective about it after knowing what it is you want to achieve, which is a purely value-based question. Let me try to quickly attack some counter arguments I've heard before: <But morality is an ideological construct by the superstructure, and is mostly determined by material conditions So? It still exists, and you still can't make any decisions without it. <Something something maximize entropy It is still a moral statement. You want to maximize it as you believe it is a must for there to be existence, however believing that there should be an existence is a subjective view. People like gnostics and anti-natalists only prove that you can take an opposite stance, no more rational or irrational than yours. <Universal values I doubt such really exist, and also they would still be values against which, theoretically, you could take an opposed stance.
>>1687 I would pay money for this image to be painted over to have a bunker in it instead of a house.
There is something paradoxical about the oft repeated view from philosophers that the universe is meaningless while humans want to find meaning in life. It's more like the universe is full of meaning for us and we are helpless to escape it even in the case we want to. We fundamentally can't escape the fact that some things make us happy and some things make us suffer, which itself brings a kind of meaning to life. Also there seems to be a surplus of meaning where things take on more meaning than just their apparent consequences for our simple pleasure or pain. People find more happiness in cooking than simply the pleasure of the food they eventually eat. This is true generally of labour; you get a flow and joy from building a desk that can't be reduced to the utility of using the desk. Heroic actions take on more meaning than the benefits they actually provide, and so on. This surplus meaning might be considered the sublime. This is why utilitarianism is flawed, or at least would involve much more complicated 'computations' than might first appear. Morality is a natural consequence of this surplus of meaning. Children have a strong sense of fairness and want to share candy that are unequally distributed for example. The point is not that there will be some practical problem from the unequal distribution (no child will starve because of not having a few sweets) but the justice of the situation. Humans naturally have concepts of justice and so on which are the foundation of morality. There can be different conceptions of morality depending on the society that one lives in, and it is illuminating to challenge a certain morality sometimes, but the existence of morality is pretty much inherent in humans. Trying to get people to 'awaken from the illusion of morality' altogether is autistic and not helpful. To be honest, the impossibility of the universe existing, being coherent, and strange beings like us existing and leading lives full of the peculiar meanings of human life, suggest to me the existence of God or some kind of judgement, but of course no one truly knows this.
>>2907 What do you mean with impossibbility in the last paragraph? Is it poetic language or do you mean highly improbable?

history of the world Historian 02/29/2020 (Sat) 11:43:12 No. 296 [Reply]
What does /roulette/ think of the markovian view of marxist/althusserian historical materialism presented by the immortal scientist in his review of althusser's philosopher of the encounter, as well as in his book "how the world works".
I thought that picture was a joke? Please don't tell me there are people who truly believe such nonsense.
>>297 read the first pdf attached
in order to make the state machine materialist, it would need to have a copy of that diagram for all combinations of relevant material conditions (plus connecting arrows). While it is technically correct, I don't think it is particularly useful.
>>5021 Obviously this is insufficient as a COMPLETE model, but it's clearly not trying to be. It's expressing the idea that conditions potentially ripe for capitalism more frequently arise than actually do transition to it, which seems largely accurate to me - though of course (1) you could no doubt as mentioned get greater predictive accuracy by adding additional variables and (2) this leaves unexplained what constitutes the different state and why transitions between them should occur. It's not like Marxists have neglected these questions, though, so I think it's worth seeing if FSM-type models can produce anything useful if you noodle around with them.
>>5039 They can't, this is some horoscope level bullshit.

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Comrade 10/20/2020 (Tue) 16:10:28 No. 5037 [Reply]
Does anybody have a EPUB or a pdf(although a epub is preferred) of pic related. On a Zer0books binge at the moment

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Comrade 05/12/2020 (Tue) 17:53:47 No. 1569 [Reply]
Do you prefer physical or digital books /edu/?
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>>1569 Physical but cause Coronalol, digital so I can use Sci-hub
>>1569 Digital Though if the apocalypse happens I might regret that
>>1569 physical always.
I can't read online. I print out PDFs sometimes though instead of buying.
Either digital copies or hardcover physical books. Paperbacks are pure degeneracy and counter-revolutionairy ;)

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How to pirate Enclyclopaedia Britannica Comrade 10/17/2020 (Sat) 15:04:26 No. 5005 [Reply]
I feel the need to read in the online version of Encyclopaedia Britannica, not wikipedia, but the fuckers only allow me to see the first part of the articles without a pls pay wall. Is there a form of researching there being poor? like https://www.britannica.com/technology/history-of-technology

Comrade 05/17/2020 (Sun) 23:02:39 No. 1677 [Reply]
any good books on the medieval period? yes i have already read the peseant war in germany, no i did not understood what the fuck it was saying
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>>1677 John Hatcher and Mark Bailey Modelling the Middle Ages The Brenner Debate (Specifically 'Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe') Guy Bois, The Crisis of Feudalism : Economy and Society in Eastern Normandy C1300-1550 Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonisation and Cultural Change: 950-1350 (Personal fave, the least dry out of all the texts and it gives you a broad picture for you to decide what your interested in) As posted by previous anon, 'The Three Orders' is a must imo. If you have a specific area your interested in that would help as there's a lot going on at the same time, and it becomes tricky to create general histories due to the variety of shit that was going on across europe. Especially since a lot of histories just ignore eastern europe.
Jacques Le Goff
From a more rightist colleague I've heard John Huizinga's "Autumn of the Middle Ages" as THE book I should read. (His 'Homo Ludens' also sounds quite interesting)
Why does a full suit of High Middle Ages chainmail, like with coif, hauberk, mufflers, cuisse, etc. look so fucking good?
A bit specialist, but there are some reading recommendations in this academic syllabus for anyone interested in medieval philosophy and theology: https://itself.blog/2020/10/08/angels-and-demons-syllabus/#more-27219

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Ethiopian elephants Comrade 10/15/2020 (Thu) 03:00:46 No. 4994 [Reply]
Did the ancient/medieval Ethiopians domesticate the African elephant? In many historical records, the Abyssinians/Aksumites are mentioned to use elephants for military purposes, but were these African elephants or Asian elephants? In modern-day Ethiopia, or in fact anywhere for that matter, there is no sign of domestication of the African elephant. However, African elephants have been extensively used in ancient times for military purposes, for example by the Carthaginians.
thank you for your contribution to this board my friend
>>4994 phroo :DD
>>4994 Those war elephants were probably from a now extinct western subspecies of Asian elephant, or northern subspecies of African forest elephant.
Are elephants comrades?
>>5001 Of course. We shall help them develop their brains and social minds until they are our equals. Like dolphins UPHOLD POSADAS

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Reforms possible post-capitalist society Comrade 08/12/2020 (Wed) 20:50:59 No. 2987 [Reply]
This thread is for large-scale improvements or even small tweaks in society that are impossible to implement under capitalism. Inspiration for this thread came after reading this https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/xgqkyw/copper-destroys-viruses-and-bacteria-why-isnt-it-everywhere >Today, we have insight into why a person handling copper day in and day out would have protection from a bacterial threat: Copper is antimicrobial. It kills bacteria and viruses, sometimes within minutes. In the 19th century, exposure to copper would have been an early version of constantly sanitizing one's hands. >A study from 2015 found that a different coronavirus, human coronavirus 229E, which causes respiratory tract infections, could still infect a human lung cell after five days of being on materials like teflon, ceramic, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. But on copper alloys, the coronavirus was “rapidly inactivated.” >So given how well it could work, for hospital infections and for health more generally, why isn’t copper everywhere? Why isn’t every door knob, every subway rail, every ICU room, made of copper? Why can we easily buy stainless steel water bottles, but not copper? Where are the copper iPhone cases? >There might also be a perception that copper is too expensive, Schmidt said, despite the fact that the numbers indicate it would ultimately save money. One of Keevil and Schmidt's studies from 2015 did the math: The cost of treating an HAI ranges from $28,400 to $33,800 per patient. Installing copper on 10 percent of surfaces cost $52,000 and prevented 14 infections over the course of the 338-day study. If you take the lower end of the HAI treatment cost ($28,400), then those 14 prevented infections saved a total of $397,600, or $1,176 a day. So while the material and reason to use copper for most things are there. The kind of short-term market logic that makes it impossible to do anything about climate change also prevents this move from being made.
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https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1951/economic-problems/ch13.htm > 3. It is necessary, in the third place, to ensure such a cultural advancement of society as will secure for all members of society the all-round development of their physical and mental abilities, so that the members of society may be in a position to receive an education sufficient to enable them to be active agents of social development, and in a position freely to choose their occupations and not be tied all their lives, owing to the existing division of labour, to some one occupation. >What is required for this? >It would be wrong to think that such a substantial advance in the cultural standard of the members of society can be brought about without substantial changes in the present status of labour. For this, it is necessary, first of all, to shorten the working day at least to six, and subsequently to five hours. This is needed in order that the members of society might have the necessary free time to receive an all-round education. It is necessary, further, to introduce universal compulsory polytechnical education, which is requiredin order that the members of society might be able freely to choose their occupations and not be tied to some one occupation all their lives. It is likewise necessary that housing conditions should be radically improved, and that real wages of workers and employees should be at least doubled, if not more, both by means of direct increases of wages and salaries, and, more especially, by further systematic reductions of prices for consumer goods. >These are the basic conditions required to pave the way for the transition to communism. >Only after all these preliminary conditions are satisfied in their entirety may it be hoped that work will be converted in the eyes of the members of society from a nuisance into "life's prime want" (Marx), (8) that "labour will become a pleasure instead of being a burden" (Engels), (9) and that social property will be regarded by all members of society as the sacred and inviolable basis of the existence of society. >Only after all these preliminary conditions have been satisfied in their entirety will it be possible to pass from the socialist formula, "from each according to his ability, to each according to his work," to the communist formula, "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
Doesn't copper oxidize, effectively having to be replaced every 10-20 years because it's surface wouldn't inactivate viruses anymore?
>>4945 i wonder if you could just sand/scruff the surface??
>>4945 No, read the piece >Another reason copper may have been passed over for steel, plastic, or glass is that it can easily tarnish and requires a lot of cleaning to remain shiny. “But copper is antimicrobial regardless of how grody it looks, if it turns green on you, it still has the ability to kill bacteria and viruses and fungi,” he said.
Whales are one of the best ways to sustainably store carbon away from the environment because they eat a lot and then sink to the bottom of the ocean. Why are whales going extinct? Over-fishing, pollution, lots of reasons >Now we turn to the economic side of the solution. Protecting whales has a cost. Mitigating the many threats to whales involves compensating those causing the threats, a group that includes countries, businesses, and individuals. Ensuring that this approach is practical involves determining whales’ monetary value. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2019/12/natures-solution-to-climate-change-chami.htm


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