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Comrade 04/27/2020 (Mon) 06:51:53 No. 1360 [Reply]
My problem focuses on history and humanities, but I guess it could apply to other subjects. How do you guys "use" sources? How should leftists approach primary and secondary sources when studying or debating? How should we approach anticommunist ones? How do you make sure sources are correct? For example: Say you have 2 books on the Russian revolution, the first one is more left wing and the second is more anticommunist. How do you prove who's right and wrong? What do you do if the two books contradict each other? Sorry if that's too many questions, but I have a lot of doubts when it comes to learning from books and using them for debates.
>>1360 >How do you guys "use" sources? By quoting them in the text, referring to them, and then listing them in the bibliography. The key here is to be true to the sources. It is bad historic writing to use a source that does not say what you want it to say, but pretend like it does. >How should leftists approach primary and secondary sources when studying or debating? Critically. >How should we approach anticommunist ones? Even more critically. >How do you make sure sources are correct? You don't. You can never know something for sure, but corroborating sources are usually a good sign. When reading historical works you have to be aware that a lot of it is conjecture. Not made up, but kind of pieced together to make sense, often by generalising what we know of the time. Like for example you can say a particular Consul in 50 CE Rome had a bath in his house without having evidence of that Consul having a bath, but having evidence that rich people in Consuls in Rome in 50 CE generally had a bath. >Say you have 2 books on the Russian revolution, the first one is more left wing and the second is more anticommunist. How do you prove who's right and wrong? You don't "prove" anything, but you can do two things: 1) attack the book you disagree with, which can be anything from attacking the sources, criticising the way the author uses sources, criticise the author himself (ad hominem, despite its bad rep is a legit argument, e.g. Ancient aliens guy has no business speaking about aliens cause he has a bachelor in communication, not history or something relevant); 2) find sources that corroborate an opposing view. >What do you do if the two books contradict each other?

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>>1361 Much appreciated, comrade!

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Western Marxism Comrade 04/18/2020 (Sat) 23:09:09 No. 1170 [Reply]
What are some essential western Marxist works? Which work(s) would you classify as your favourite(s)
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>>1170 Anybody have any thoughts on this? Seems really neat just to get a different perspective. The way it reconciles marxist thought and the individual seems fascinating. http://blogs.law.columbia.edu/critique1313/10-13/
>>1181 I guess being head of the Italian Communist party doesn't count.
>>1229 >He claims that they seek to draw a distinction between the theory of Marx and that of Engels. Lukacs points out some differences between Marx and Engels in History and Class Consciousness (https://www.marxists.org/archive/lukacs/works/history/), for example: >The statements of Marx and Engels on this point could hardly be more explicit. “Dialectics thereby reduced itself to the science of the general laws of motion – both in the external world and in the thought of man – two sets of laws which are identical in substance” (Engels). [5] Marx formulated it even more precisely. “In the study of economic categories, as in the case of every historical and social science, it must be borne in mind that ... the categories are therefore but forms of being, conditions of existence ....” [6] If this meaning of dialectical method is obscured, dialectics must inevitably begin to look like a superfluous additive, a mere ornament of Marxist ‘sociology’ or ‘economics’. Even worse, it will appear as an obstacle to the ‘sober’, ‘impartial’ study of the ‘facts’, as an empty construct in whose name Marxism does violence to the facts. <end notes: 6. _A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy_ , (my italics). It is of the first importance to realise that the method is limited here to the realms of history and society. The misunderstandings that arise from Engels’ account of dialectics can in the main be put down to the fact that Engels – following Hegel’s mistaken lead – extended the method to apply also to nature. However, the crucial determinants of dialectics – the interaction of subject and object, the unity of theory and practice, the historical changes in the reality underlying the categories as the root cause of changes in thought, etc. – are absent from our knowledge of nature. Unfortunately it is not possible to undertake a detailed analysis of these questions here. (https://www.marxists.org/archive/lukacs/works/history/orthodox.htm) The other work I see mentioned (although I haven't read it) is Marx and Engels: The Intellectual Relationship by Terrell Carver. I couldn't find a PDF of the book, but I have attached a review that should give you enough info to decide whether you want to read it or not. For what it's worth, it seems that Carver is somewhat of an Engels scholar. He published a book called Engels Before Marx this year (https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030423704). Other than that I found a paper called Engels as Interpreter of Marx's Economics, by Christopher J. Arthur: >This paper is concerned with Engels's work on Marx's critique of political economy. As is the case in general, Engels was originally taken as a reliable guide to Marx's work in this area; but the claim has been made that Engels's views as a commentator and popularizer are to be rejected, and that, in the editorial work Engels did on Marx's Capital, he abused (consciously or unconsciously) the trust Marx placed in him as the literary executor of the Marxian legacy. While the main interest of the paper lies in its consideration of Engels's interpretation of Marx's method, I shall first consider the charges pertaining to his work as Marx's literary executor. >Before considering such charges it is worth noting that the habit of taking Marx and Engels as one person is so deeply ingrained from earlier times2 that traces of it survived in places until very recently. As a prime example of this tradition let us take the well-known textbook by M.C. Howard and J.E. King on The political economy of Marx, which appeared in 1975. Treating of what they assume is Marx's 'logical-historical method', they give passages as if they quote from Marx (e.g. 'in history ... development as a whole proceeds from the most simple to the most complex relations') when the passages in question are really the work of Engels!3 They are from a review Engels wrote in 1859 of Marx's Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. (I deal with it extensively below.) (attached)
>>1290 Thank you anon! I will be taking a look at those.

Prussian Language Luge Ushqimi 04/24/2020 (Fri) 13:17:18 No. 1317 [Reply]
So I wrote a pdf, on the reconstructed language of old Prussian. This language is actually going through a revival, from what I could gather. Since last year I found a YouTube channel where a family from Lithuania speak this language in a daily basis, and even their daughters speak it. So I got the dictionary of the language, read some posts on their facebook page, and listened to their speech. This pdf is mostly an overview of the language, I am not a linguistic or anything like that, I am just a random guy who likes languages. So I wanted to post it somewhere, and I decided to post it here first, I think that there are some people here that would be interested in this. The YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqhLH_SLh3apNZjSruEXZMg The dictionary https://wirdeins.twanksta.org/ A site with good resources https://bila.twanksta.org/

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Comrade 04/16/2020 (Thu) 03:38:55 No. 1095 [Reply]
Does someone have to be skilled/proficient in a subject in order for their teachings to be taken seriously? Can you be mediocre, or even bad at something, but great at teaching it? Should you listen to someone of a low skill level in that subject? Does this answer vary among subject matters? Like do you have to be a good artist to be able to teach art? Do you have to be proficient in writing to be able to teach that? This is a continuation of the drawing thread I derailed on /hobby/: >>>/hobby/8436
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>>1104 Based. Tank you anon.
>>1095 Knowing the formal rules, though processes, steps to take, fundamental principles conciously is not the same as being able to apply those things on autopilot. The former makes a good teacher, being able to explain exactly why and how, through concious effort, the latter makes a skilled person. You can have the former without the latter or vice versa. Often people who are very skilled have internalised the rules to such an extend they cannot seperate the rules from the whole and are thus unable to teach. Also often the people with the theoretical knowledge spend most of their time formalising those rules than applying them in day to day work, and as such aren't as skilled. So no you don't have to be a good mathematician to teach maths, you don't need to be a good programmer to teach coding. Being a good programmer is applying all those rules instinctively, quickly, without effort, you have to feel instinctually that a piece of logic is "not nice". But teaching requires the ability to apply all these steps conciously, out loud, step by step, formally, not quickly. Same for a mathematician, same for an artist, same for any job. Skill is not neccecarily knowledge and knowledge is not neccecarily skill.
>>1107 Does everything have to be explicitly said for the student to learn? You can learn a lot about good programming by carefully reading good programs, you can learn a great deal about dancing by carefully watching experts dance. In workplaces a good deal of training is often done simply by observing more experienced colleagues working.
>>1110 You can learn by trying to decipher what makes other works good but that is not what you pay a teacher for. It takes many times longer to get a feel for good code, and even then it's total bs to think you can learn good code from experience alone. Good code is build on strict principles, database designs have hyper formalised definitions to ensure it meets all qualities of good design. Solid dry and other quasi buzzwords have to be explicitly taught in order to be applied, even if the programmer later forgets which of the 20 buzzwords made him consider that choice. You could try to learn to draw or learn to code just by watching other people draw or other people code, but in reality that is not what happens. In businesses were programming happens, new colleagues are corrected with explicit mentions about why a certain choice is better than others. When drawing, or any other skill, trying to decipher the reason behind a choice will just lead you to 20 wrong ends. The total accumulated decisions obscure the reasoning and in trying to immitate it you end up with people who exhibit cargo cult mentality. Just look at people who for no reason try to apply certain coding patterns everywhere because "he saw someone else do it" or all the artists drawing horrible shaded drawings because "they saw other artists put in highlights". You can't learn well from just observing the end result. You have to know the reasons for all choices, so you know why it's there, so you know when to break the rules. That is what a teacher is for.
>>1171 Relational databases have well-understood mathematical properties but even those can't tell what a good database design is, only pinpoint some obviously bad ones. For example, you can calculate how much redundancy you store, but some extra redundancy may actually be desirable to speed up critical queries. It's not as black and white as you make it to be. There are some similar metrics for code but I don't think anyone actually makes use of them, since blind conformance to metrics is a sure way to ruin your code. Programs are written to be read, not to satisfy "cyclomatic complexity" targets. Design patterns are a good counterexample, because often they are taught to be a silver bullet for good programming when in fact they are not. They are just common solutions to common problems. Students will mindlessly try to apply them to every problem they come across even when there is a much better solution, because they were taught that this is what they should be doing. I never heard of this actually happening because "they saw someone else doing it", like you claim, but I can recall many cases where they did it because they were taught to. Maybe in drawing it is different, but I am sceptical. The problem with teachers is that they become the sole arbiters of what is considered good/desirable/acceptable and thus rob the student of their confidence in their own judgements. In industry if every code review you give ends up in a small lecture of coding practices, there's a good chance your poor colleague will forever remain a junior programmer because you don't even give them the chance to explain their reasoning. Anyway, they are going to learn a lot more from reviewing your code than from your code reviews. > You can't learn well from just observing the end result. Experience says otherwise.

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cool uniforms Historian 03/01/2020 (Sun) 00:49:10 No. 282 [Reply]
ITT post ur favourite historical uniforms
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One that I hate. The Legión Española, the Christ... and the famous goat. A fascist remnant in the army of Spain, certainly ridiculous.
>>289 that emblem is very Juche.
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>>453 I loled overall, but in particular at how they had to accentuate the Bulge. I wonder if the put some socks there too if they don't have the goods necessary for the parade...

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The Indian Navy Strike 1946 Comrade 04/14/2020 (Tue) 10:58:28 No. 903 [Reply]
I was reading a book by Laal Khan on the history of proletarian and communist struggle in pre-Partition India and I was baffled at the fact that I had no idea about this event. This has to be the greatest rebellion/revolution in India before Partition. >On the eve of February 19 1946, much wider layers of the Naval personnel had joined in this revolt. The union jacks on most of the ships of the Royal Indian Navy in the Bombay harbour were torn down and the rebel sailors hoisted red flags along with the flags of the political parties that were involved in the struggle for independence. Within 48 hours the British imperialists were faced with the largest revolt ever of their Naval units. The message of this rebellion started to spread by word of mouth and then over the radio (the radio station had been taken over by the rebels) to military garrisons and barracks across India. Some of the leaders of the sailors broadcast the message of the uprising and revolutionary songs and poetry were also broadcast round the clock. The revolt spread to 74 ships, 20 fleets and 22 units of the Navy along the coast. It involved Bombay, Calcutta, Karachi, Madras, Cochin and Vishapatam. On February 20 only 10 ships and 2 naval stations were not in complete revolt. >One of the effects of this uprising was that the British Prime Minister Clement Atlee was forced to announce that the British would leave India before June 1948. https://www.marxist.com/1946-rebellion-indian-navy150903.htm
>>903 Based
>>1134 >On 19 March, a strike wave penetrated the police force throughout the major centres of the country. At Allahabad, the police went on a hunger strike. The Delhi police joined them on 22 March. On 3 April, 10 000 police personnel in Bihar joined the strike movement. Soon the workers also joined this mass wave of strikes. On 2 May 1946, the workers of the North Western Railway went on strike. On 11 July, more than 100 000 postal workers started an all-India strike. Industrial workers across the subcontinent joined the movement with massive strike action. The whole of India was engulfed in these mass uprisings, revolts and strikes. The British were losing control over the armed forces. The first to come to the rescue of the imperialist Raj were the political leaders of all religions.

Cosmopolitan mongrel deleted his blog Comrade 04/16/2020 (Thu) 17:10:23 No. 1112 [Reply]

Period management before cheap paper Historian 02/29/2020 (Sat) 17:34:06 No. 14 [Reply]
How did women do it back then?
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>>28 That was my step-dad from tennessee. He claimed to be a christian but he seemed to value wealth more than GOD, so he took us to evangelical churches where i almost began apologizing for turning my back on the lord. I'm not sure why,i guess i just felt like the atmosphere was suffocating me and the deity was personally trying to force me to kneel. I went to a catholic church later on where i did kneel and begin crying during something those retards were doing, i'm not sure what catholics do but i kinda got up in front of everybody with tears in my eyes for no particular reason and asked for a blessing. My biological father was the one who claimed to be a satanist when he was younger (but he personally met jesus inside a jail cell), smoked meth and threatened to kick me out of the house if i voted for bernie lol. Anyways it was my biological father who told me that you're supposed to sleep on the roof to avoid women on their period. That was when my parents were divorcing i think.
Freud thought women learned to be devious because they had to hide their periods so nobody knew they could get pregnant so they got better at covering shit up.
>>14 I would bet that the association between women and working with textiles comes partly from women weaving fibers together to form linen and the like to soak up cooter fluids. I've heard historians referring to reusable menstrual cloth much like reusable diapers, so as far back as there was cloth there was probably menstrual cloths. Before that maybe they got creative with other shit like feathers. I know in rural India where cheap sanitary napkins are being introduced, there was a typical practice of shoving fucking dirt up there, but that's also in a culture where the whole subject is very taboo. >>20 90% of the idea that hunter-gatherers were ooga booga cave men is the lack of hard evidence of their sophistication. Prior to monumental stone architecture, most of what they made and built disappeared completely over the ages. Shit, the idea that people were primarily cave-dwellers probably mostly comes from the fact that caves shield physical evidence from the elements. The kind of people who lived in caves back then were probably the kind of people who live in caves today - social rejects and those who were too lazy/stupid to build a longhouse or whatever. They were just as smart as us, but had less of the kind of knowledge we do, and more knowledge of how to survive in a less altered (but still altered) environment.
>>14 how the fuck do you think I know that? I'm a dude. Let us all wait for a woman or a human waste historian to show up itt

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Notes Comrade 04/07/2020 (Tue) 02:56:39 No. 461 [Reply]
How do you take your notes? Do you take notes? Use this thread to discuss methods, tips, and anything else related to how you take notes.
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>>890 cute girl, i like it better already
>>889 Yeah if you're taking notes for a class I don't think the Zettelkasten method is really what you're looking for. It's more meant to be an overall knowledge management system. Cornell method is decent. It's really not so important to follow one particular method as it is write things out in a way that isn't too rushed, is easy to understand later, and is in your own words (so that you actually have to understand it).
>>889 I don't really see the point of having designated places for keywords and summaries.
>>894 Search time optimization.

Comrade 04/12/2020 (Sun) 09:40:04 No. 805 [Reply]
What do I need to /edu/cate myself on if I want to spot sloppy research? Like, what is a controlled study, when is the correlation significant enough to be taken seriously, things like that.
>what is a controlled study Where you have two research subjects, the test group and the control group You change something from the default state for the test group, and leave the control group the same >when is the correlation significant enough to be taken seriously, Depends on what you're looking for, whether you want to minimize false positives or negatives on the likelihood of the effect being real etc Sometimes spotting spotty research is just a matter of looking for tells If what the abstract claims is different or hyping the results the research deserves extra scrutiny in some cases for example
It's all shit, or at least most of it is. Google "the null ritual".
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>>831 Do you mean this? I started reading it but gave up after a few pages because I don't know anything about the statistics it speaks of.
>>870 Yes, that is exactly what I was referencing. There is an episode of a podcast called "Not Related" that goes into it as well, although the actual demonstration of the issue is in the paper. The methods that it talks about in there are exactly the kinds of statistics you will need to learn if you are interested in experimental design, or at least if you want to understand the quantitative methods used in academia rn. I was taught null hypothesis testing in my undergrad, but fortunately I also studied enough math to see that it is largely bullshit. I mean, it does have an application but the way it is applied is quite literally cargo cult behavior. You may also want to look into the replicability crisis in science, as well as the new paradigms in theoretical physics that will hopefully displace the dead-end trend towards quantizement that we've seen taken to ridiculous extrememes in the past few decades. I don't have much faith that this will actually be realized, bourgeois academia is in decay, but the theoretical groundwork is there (quantum gravity is one such theory which is kinda controversial but there are others as well).

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