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Language Learning General Comrade 01/09/2021 (Sat) 15:48:19 No. 6470
Share tips and recommendations. Good general advice can be found in Gabriel Wyner's Fluent Forever. Two thirds of the book is him chanting that you should use flashcards. You can use physical cards for spaced repetition or use software. IMHO the biggest pro of software flashcards is that they can play sound. Anki is a popular free flashcard software, with many people sharing decks https://ankiweb.net/shared/decks/ (though it's strongly recommended that you build your own or at least tweak the cards since that drastically boosts how well you remember stuff). Last thread got nuked in an act of cyber-terrorism by mad ex-jannies, but you didn't miss much. Some guy recommended these articles by Luke Smith who isn't as fond of autistic vocab drills as I am: https://lukesmith.xyz/articles/learning-languages https://lukesmith.xyz/articles/other-langs https://lukesmith.xyz/articles/michel-thomas The Michel Thomas Method (TM) forces you to talk in full sentences in the new language right from the start. It begins with very simple sentences that expand and get more and more elaborate. Even though the vocabulary is kept small, your sentences soon get very long.
Here's the method from Fluent Forever so you don't have to waste your time reading the full book: https://tim.blog/2014/07/16/how-to-learn-any-language-in-record-time-and-never-forget-it/
I'd like to learn a language by reading some essays twice, in two languages. More comfy than reading two books side by side would be a single book with each sentence done in both languages right under each other. Even better would be the new language with the gloss between original and translation or instead of the translation. The gloss is a word-for-word translation instead of sentence translation. The info from the gloss is usually enough to translate something even when not familiar with a language. It's common for linguists to present sentences with a gloss. But do books with glossified longer texts even exist?
> https://www.languagetransfer.org/ What do you think of this? I have it saved but I don't remember why I saved it.
>>6490 Just gave it a quick look, seems good. Their style of teaching appears similar to Michel Thomas and they run on donations.
>>6493 (me) I went through lessons one to 25 of their Spanish audio course. If the rest of the lessons is like that and the teacher doesn't get the Covid Coof midway through, it's just perfect. I normally shill for starting with flash cards and I always say that you should make your own big deck before you start drilling so that you see certain patterns in the vocabulary that will make it much easier to remember the words, and people listen and they nod respectfully because it makes perfect sense… and then they just download a deck. In this course you get directly told the common patterns (example: English words ending in "ion" almost always have a practically identical Spanish equivalent). Now I think the best way is to start with this course.
>>6507 I was thinking about using for German but unfortunately that seems to be unfinished...
>>6512 OH POOP. I just recommended that to another guy because of how good the Spanish course has been so far (I'm in the middle of it). Here's an idea: You do the course material that is there already about German. I'm going to do the rest of their Spanish course and read the book at https://www.languagetransfer.org/othermaterial about their teaching philosophy. At the beginning of February, I'll go through their German stuff in smurf-voice speedrun mode (I already speak German) and then you can ask me stuff here and I'll try aping their style.
<Rather than worry about future verb-tense conjugations, many languages have a handy feature of sticking to infinitive verb forms after modal verbs. In less complex language, this means that if you use words like “want,” “need,” “would like,” “should,” “may,” “can (able to)” in their standard present-tense conjugation with, say, “I” (“I want,” “I can”), you can follow them up with the dictionary (infinitive) form of the important verb you wish to use, such as “to travel.” When you think of it, the essential difference between “I want to travel” and “I will travel,” while important, is not significant when you want to convey a simple meaning. <To keep it simple, I’d recommend you learn just “I want,” “you want,” “I can,” and “you can” to begin with, especially if your exchanges are directly with one person (since the he/she/it/they pronouns will be less relevant in that situation). The word “want” can be an okay replacement for the future tense (“want to speak” instead of “will speak”). “Can” is good to use in many direct questions, so rather than “Do you speak Italian?” I would go for “Can you speak Italian?” The point of doing this is to use the standard dictionary form of the word “speak” (parlare in Italian) without needing to conjugate (change) it. “Need” (or “have to”) is good for any kind of obligation. So rather than “I start work at nine,” I might say, “I need to start work at nine.” The meaning isn’t precisely the same but it’s close enough. Good tip from "Fluent in 3 Months" by Benny Lewis (don't take that title seriously though).
Done with the Language Transfer guidebook. So it's somewhat similar to Michel Thomas in that it's Q and A and you are asked to produce sentences pretty much from the beginning and it's mostly about grammar (he even got sued by the MT IP owners because of a patent for the trivial idea of using the pause button in an audio course!). The sentences start very short and get more and more elaborate. You are nudged towards guessing words following shifting patterns between related languages, with MT being less transparent about it than LT. MT is more about giving you a feeling of what's right and it's not so clear to the student just how much you are nudged. This also means that with MT you are not quite as competent as you feel you are, but it's still a great way to get into a language. The LT guidebook is not as enthusiastic as MT about using shitty puns to remember vocab. It makes more use of real etymology (history of a word's usage and how it mutates over time and with location changes) for making connections. That's not to say that you never should use puns and made-up etymologies, but memory-hooks don't come for free. They require mental energy. An example of a shitty memory-hook is imagining two lovers in the rain for remembering that Spanish llover means to rain. Here you are putting up with sticking half a sentence in your noggin just to remember one word (and it isn't clear to me how you would remember it's a verb since lovers and rain are nouns after all). So for a story to be worth it one should be able to combo into several things from there, and the chance that this works with stuff you make up spontaneously as a newbie is low. But real etymology, real story, tends to work in patterns. I think it's still worthwhile to come up with silly stories for letter strings in the target language if they appear in many obviously related words or if you can make them relate through the story. It isn't hard to remember stuff like spelling new words if you have a good feeling for how the language usually works, so you have to only remember the expectation-defying bits. Getting the student to that point isn't done well usually. Languages tend to have some verbs with high frequency usage (like to say or to go) that are conjugated in ways completely different from how it usually works. So not to poison the intuition-building process, it makes sense to only let the exceptions drip in slowly, and show more of the normal way. One should also avoid cryptic grammar terms if possible, as LT does. LT is really good and I'm surprised it isn't more well-known. I see a similarity between ways of teaching and ways of writing a newspaper article. When writing in classical newspaper style, you assume that your audience is busy and might quit reading after any paragraph. So, you put the gist in at the start and then add details and after that mini-details for the macro-details. You can't do things like arguing strongly for one position and then put a twist in the end. But what if your readers actually go all the way to the end? What you write is going to be more samey and boring than it has to be. Gabriel Wyner makes the point that learning vocabulary by thematic sets like colors is boring. It's more easy to remember random vocab lists where each word is more likely to stick out as special in its own way, and better than that is using sound-shift patterns specific to the base-target language combination or sets that recycle word fragments. Likewise it is boring to learn grammar in a way that drills down a specific section (like all present conjugations) before anything else, a point that the LT guy makes. So, why is language usually taught the boring way? Because it makes it easier for the teacher to track where the students are and it makes it easy to communicate this to people who don't know anything about the language (and it makes it easier to replace the teacher). If you do a third of a regular language course, you can easily summarize what you know. The topics in LT are so densely weaved together that the lessons are just titled by number and the revelation of the grammar map is done with many jumps revealing small spots.
Done with the LT "Complete" Spanish course. At the beginning I was wondering: When will they cover vosotros/vosotras (2nd person plural informal)? Just when we hit lesson 90 out of 90, the teacher says that there is another form of you that's only used in Spain… Well, the problem with this is that it isn't just one word, this also comes with other verb forms. So if you want to speak Spanish with the Spanish Spaniards of Spain, this course only gives you a very formal way of addressing groups. Despite this, it's an excellent course. It gives you a good sense of expectation of what works and what doesn't. (For example, there are verbs that end in -ar and -er and -ir in their dictionary form and my old teacher never told me that the verbs ending in -er and -ir are a closed class, meaning it's a fixed set and all the new verbs end in -ar. Somehow I haven't noticed that myself. The closed class is small, but the verbs in it are very frequently used, so I didn't have a feeling that these endings are rare in the verb population. Guessing a corresponding verb from knowing a noun has become much easier now.) I'm still willing to go through their 50 lessons for German to help anybody who is going through them, so I want to know whether anybody on this small board actually wants to try it.
>>6540 I wasn't expecting such a through review. Are you actually a teacher? >>6553 I'm not sure if I ready for that commitment yet. I still have much to learn for Esperanto, is it a good idea to study two languages at the same time?
>>6554 >is it a good idea to study two languages at the same time? From the mentioned book by the polyglot Benny Lewis: <While some language learners can take on several new languages at once, most cannot. In fact, for most language learners this is a really bad idea, especially if they don’t have any prior experience with other languages. <Someone who already has several languages under his or her belt may be able to take on a couple of new languages simultaneously, but if you have not successfully learned any new languages as an adult already, it’s best to focus on just one language at a time. Despite my own experience learning languages, I never try to learn two new languages at once. There is too much of a risk of mixing them up. Grammar rules and vocabulary have a nasty habit of bleeding into each other when you’re first trying to get used to them. <While it may seem logical enough to try to learn two languages at the same time for a given period, say French and Spanish, you’re actually working against your best language learning interests. You’re almost always better off focusing your entire attention on one language and then, once you’re comfortable with it, turning your full attention to a second language. <This doesn’t mean you have to master one language before moving on to the next one. But you should at least wait until you’re fluent in one before taking on another. You should be confident using a language, at a B2 level or above. When I reach this stage in a language, for instance, I find it’s then really hard to forget the language, even if I don’t practice it for several months or a year. <When I have reached no more than level B1, though, because I am not yet truly comfortable in that language and because it doesn’t feel like it’s a part of me, it is much more likely to slip away, such that you go down an entire level in a very short time and even forget the basics. Of course, you can still get rusty with lack of practice at a B2 level and above, but within a very short time you can get back to where you used to be. For what B1 and B2 mean, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_European_Framework_of_Reference_for_Languages
Japanese Kanji seem very hard to memorize. There are thousands of them. It's possible to break them down into a few hundred components that are arranged in different ways, but there seems to be not much logic in how the arrangements correspond to meaning. There is a simple Kanji that means tree and it reappears as a component in many other Kanji and sure enough these seem to always (or almost always?) have something to do with wood. But most about the arrangement patterns looks arbitrary. An explanation is that much of that stuff was used to actually hint at pronunciation of words with no care for meaning and with the passage of time and geographical change, the utility of this hinting has decreased quite a lot. Several decades ago a guy worked out a concept for memorizing this stuff. It was a big improvement. "Remembering the Kanji" is the name of the book and James Heisig was that guy. It was and still is a very popular book. The concept is two ideas: 1. Since there isn't much logic in the arrangement of components, we just make up stuff about what the components mean and make up little stories with them. 2. The learning order does not follow what Japanese institutions do, but what makes it easy to learn. A variant of this concept is the freely available Anki deck "Kanji Damage", which uses crude humor and pop culture references (probably works better for most people). We have to make up things to make sense of the Kanji because there isn't much intrinsic sense in them we can work with. – This seems to be true on first impression. But what if that impression is wrong? Enter "The World of Kanji" by Alex Adler. Adler claims that there is a lot of sense behind the compositions aside from pronunciation hinting, but to make the most of it, you need to learn to see the ancient script behind the modern Kanji. So unlike Heisig and Kanji Damage, this uses a lot of real history and only a modest amount of fantasy.
Just went through the book LANGUAGE HACKING GERMAN by Benny Lewis (2016). It's very focused on verbal chit-chat. He tells you to embrace your "inner Tarzan". It's mostly about getting you quickly to the point where you can speak and get your points across, quick and dirty. And then there are some tips how to improve from there. While reading the intro I already found the first bugs. <German is a phonetic language, which means that each letter, or letter combination follows the same rule all the time. Sounds to good to be true? That's because it isn't true. But it's close to being true. Several pages later, he qualifies his statement. The guide says "ie" is pronounced like "ee" in English and gives as an example "Familie", which is one of the very few words in German where it doesn't work like that. Nitpick: Given that English has very irregular pronunciation, it's a better idea to actually spell out a word like "keen" instead of showing letters that don't form a word. It tells you to pronounce German "v" like English "f" and while that works for those very Germanic looking words like "vorwärts" (forward), but those that look Latin like "Vision" or "Variation" (same meaning as in English) have a sound like in English "very". Well, the good news is that people will still understand the words you say if you follow this, but you will sound like an absolute retard. Quick and dirty, indeed. Some good ideas are the hacks he mentions for simplifying sentence construction: After you got asked something about yourself, you don't have to make a long equivalent sentence to turn back the question like: "And what is your favorite endangered bird species in Peru?" Or whatever would be the variation of what you just got asked about, instead you say: "Und du?" (And you?). There are some very counter-intuitive rules about word order modification in German in longer sentences and keeping track of that in real time can get very hard and likewise there are weird modifications of adjectives based on noun case and gender in longer sentences. He shows that you can easily reduce the complexity of both these issues just by making shorter sentences containing the same information: Sentence with mandatory adjective modification: "Ich habe die neuen Bücher gekauft." (I bought the new books.) Sentence without mandatory adjective modifcation: "Ich habe Bücher gekauft, und sie sind neu." (I bought the books, and they are new.) This is a huge simplification without resorting to Tarzan German. You can also talk about the past without using the past tense and likewise with the future (still not Tarzan, but colloquial). This is not a bad approach, but he doesn't present it in a way that is systematic and general enough. Here is an example he gives for cheating with the past tense: "Also ich bin auf dem Markt und kaufe Tomaten." (So, I'm at the market and buying tomatoes.) This works, now you can continue with the present tense, but it isn't a general cheat. You can't just plug in another noun than Markt as an absolute noob because there is noun-gender stuff to consider here. This would be the general past-warp cheat: "Das war so." (This happened.) So this book could be improved quite a bit, and even with the improved cheat codes, the method is limited in that the gains are almost entirely about helping you with constructing sentences by taking easier routes available in the language. The complexity of what Germans throw at you will NOT be reduced.
>>6470 >A lot of language nerds love to email me about their Anki cards or their harebrained schemes for mass-memorizing words as if they're an Asian studying for a chemistry test.
>>6597 Are premade packs good? I thought the recommendation was to make all your own cards.
>>6598 Of course self-made packs stick in your head more, but it takes time to make them. There are some words that can't be easily associated with a simple picture without ambiguity, and here it helps a lot if it's you who is making the decision which picture to link with such a word when making the card. An example that is tricky is "pay". Why is this tricky? Because of "buy" and also "sell" (as Gabriel Wyner pointed out). Even if you can't find good pictures for every word when making the deck, this frustration makes you aware of the problems and this awareness tends to stick with you when you are learning the cards. (You can of course always put a word there to remove the ambiguity, but translating from a word in language 1 to a word in language 2 is a less smooth experience compared with directly going from picture to target language.) When you use a pre-made deck, you can still edit it to deal with things that are ambiguous from your point of view. Putting audio into a deck is a ton of work, so it's very tempting to use a pre-made deck when it got audio.
>>6601 I remember reading somewhere that Anki shouldn't be used to learn new things, but only to remember them. Is that right? If it is, it makes premade decks pretty much useless, no?
>>6602 The flashcard method is proven to work. You can even use it to remember completely random strings of nonsense syllables, so it works. (That's part of the origin story of flashcards.) So it's not a question whether decks from other people can work for you, the question is how well they work in comparison with ones you make yourself. Here is something that doesn't work well: You are bad at grammar and want to learn verb forms or some other grammar stuff, so you download a deck. You get presented with cards that ask you something that is completely incomprehensible to you using the arcane jargon of grammar buffs (assuming here you have no familiarity with that at all). Very slowly you will learn the right answers, but having no idea what it's good for is not a good motivator. If you go on like that, the purpose of the deck will remain somewhat nebulous even after your conquering of it. Either delete the deck or get familiar ASAP with the grammar concepts you are supposed to learn about here. If you are a total noob at a language, a basic vocabulary deck of a thousand words or so will help you a lot. There is a whole science of statistically investigating what the most common words of a language are. The resulting lists are called frequency dictionaries. Some decks use them as sources. When you are just starting out, your own personal preferences aren't important, you will have to learn colors, numbers, etc. no matter what. But once you are past that hurdle your own interests start to matter more for what vocabulary you want to prioritize and for that you can't use a deck by a stranger. There are some available decks made for usage with specific learning books and it makes sense to use them if also use the corresponding book. Remember that you can edit the cards!
Fun idea I had: If you have a sibling or friend interested in the same target language and you are both newbies, you both can quickly learn the same set of around 100* very short sentences (like most of them no longer than 4 syllables) for almost every occasion, and make it a rule that each of you has to alternate between the languages with every second sentence whenever you are together. (Exception: You can add the translations whenever other people are within hearing range.) The lack of options will be felt more in some situations than in others and you will use this experience to decide together on how to expand your shared list. *I just made such a list for German to get that estimate.
>>6604 123 GERMAN ONE-WORD SENTENCES Attention! • Achtung! Asshole! • Arschloch! I won and you lost, haha! / I got this and you don’t, haha! • Ätsch! Stand up! / Wake up! • Aufstehen! Open the door/window/whatever! • Aufmachen! Close the door/window/whatever! • Zumachen! Encore! • Zugabe! (shouted ZU-GA-BE to keep in synch with the others shouting it) Boaster! • Angeber! Give it! • Gib! (order addressing single person) Remarkable! • Bemerkenswert! (literally “noticing-worthy”) Please. / Here you are. *puts food on table* / You’re welcome. • Bitte. Thanks. • Danke. Golly! • Donnerwetter! (literally “thunder-weather”) Seriously? • Ernsthaft? Gotcha! • Erwischt! ❌False! • Falsch! Fascinating. • Faszinierend. What one says when one day’s work hours end. • Feierabend! (literally “celebration evening”) Finished. • Fertig. Cunt! • Fotze! Coward! • Feigling! Weakling! • Weichei! (literally “soft egg”) Leave! • Geh! (order addressing single person) Great and/or horny! • Geil! Congrats! • Glückwunsch! Look! • Guck! (order addressing single person) 👍Good. • Gut. Huh? • Hä? What? • Was? Hello. • Hallo. Stop! • Halt! Outstanding. • Hervorragend. Help! • Hilfe! Hooray! • Hurra! Whore! • Hure! Son of a whore! • Hurensohn! What one says to the kind of person who can’t remember the translation of this. • Idiot! What one says when „Idiot“ is a bit too harsh. • Esel! (literally “donkey”) Interesting! • Interessant! Eww! • Igitt! Widerlich! • Disgusting!
>>6607 Yes. • Ja. No. • Nein. Yes and no. • Jein. Who? • Wer? Where? • Wo? Here! • Hier! There! • Da! Over there! • Dort! Enemy of the working class! • Klassenfeind! Come! • Komm! (order addressing single person) 📷Smile! • Lächeln! Slower! • Langsamer! 😒Boring! • Langweilig! What one shouts to start a race. • Los! Louder! • Lauter! Tasty! • Lecker! Yeah, can be done easily! • Locker! Lie! • Lüge! Liar! • Lügner! Lying journalists! • Lügenpresse! 😆Funny! • Lustig! Strange. • Seltsam. 🤔Funny-strange. • Komisch. Mom! • Mama! Dad! • Papa! Depending on region and trade, this utterance can mean “enjoy your lunch break” or “hello” or “enjoy taking a shit”. • Mahlzeit! I don’t mind if you do that. • Meinetwegen. When one wants to greet with the question-like sound that some greetings have without that getting mistaken for a literal question. • Na? Don’t act cocky like that! • Nanana! What one says to remind a cocky kid that its height does not surpass that of three cheeses. • Dreikäsehoch! It is doable to follow the steps of what you presented and arrive at where you arrived at. • Nachvollziehbar. Of course. • Natürlich. Take it! • Nimm! (order addressing single person) What one says when one is surprised by a problem or by how big the problem is. • Oha! Break! • Pause!
>>6608 🐀Rat! • Ratte! Put in whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Reinmachen! Pull out whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Rausmachen! ✅Correct. • Richtig. Silence! • Ruhe! Bummer. • Schade. 💩Shit! • Scheiße! What one says when “shit” would be a bit too strong for the situation. • Mist! (literally “manure”) You are dressed in a stylish way! • Schick! Faster! • Schneller! Shut up! • Schnauze! (shortened version of „Halt die Schnauze“, basically “Shut your snout!”) Beautiful. • Schön. Guilty! • Schuldig! Pigdog! • Schweinehund! Faggot! • Schwuchtel! What one screams during a soccer match when the referee makes a wrong decision. • Skandal! Sit down! • Hinsetzen! 👎Bad. • Schlecht. Victory! • Sieg! That’s a sensible proposal. • Sinnvoll. That proposal doesn’t make sense and it’s pointless and I’m losing my will to live hearing this. • Sinnlos. How? • Wie? That’s how you do it! • So! Die! • Stirb! (order addressing single person; to address several without learning plural form, repeat order until reaching the desired amount) Sad. • Traurig. Bye! • Tschüss! And? • Und? 😡Maddening! • Unerhört! 🤯Unbelievable! • Unglaublich! Impossible! • Unmöglich! Suspicious. • Verdächtig. Understandable. • Verständlich. Understood. • Verstanden. Agreed. • Einverstanden. The „ein“ part means “one” and „Verstand“ means “reasoning ability”; it’s like the minds are fusing into one metaphorically here. Damned! • Verdammt! Traitor! • Verräter! Traitor(s) of the people! • Volksverräter! Almost always this refers to politicians. Loser! • Verlierer! 🤪Crazy. • Verrückt. Careful! • Vorsicht! Forward! • Vorwärts! Why? • Warum? We also got another word for “why”, „wieso“ and there's also our OTHER other word for “why”, „weshalb“. Wanker! • Wichser! Really? • Wirklich? Wonderful! • Wunderbar! Show! • Zeig! (order addressing a single person) 🍻Cheers! • Prost!
>>6604>>6609 (me) To anybody who wants to make such a list: After making this, I think it's a bit less arbitrary to set the limit at 4 syllables instead of 1 word. I think a good list is one with a substantial part that would have utility even if the person could not speak or understand any other words in the language, meaning 1) statements that one could say in reaction to something else than text or speech and 2) statements that don't invite a response in text or speech, but physical actions. Of course it's OK to have some fun stuff on top of that, especially if it contains hints about other parts of the language, like common word stems and affixes.
Here's a folder full of textbooks and related resources for nearly every language there is https://mega.nz/folder/x4VG3DRL#lqecF4q2ywojGLE0O8cu4A/folder/Vl8BWJqb
Updated the list, now it's 200 GERMAN ONE-WORD SENTENCES. Part 1: Attention! • Achtung! Asshole! • Arschloch! I won and you lost, haha! / I got this and you don’t, haha! • Ätsch! Stand up! / Wake up! • Aufstehen! Open the door/window/whatever! • Aufmachen! Close the door/window/whatever! • Zumachen! Encore! • Zugabe! (shouted ZU-GA-BE to keep in synch with the others shouting it) Boaster! • Angeber! Give it! • Gib! (order addressing a single person) Desirable. • Wünschenswert. (basically “wish-worthy”) Remarkable! • Bemerkenswert! Bemerken means both “to notice” and “to remark”. “Good morning”, but saving time by cutting out “good”. • Morgen! (also means tomorrow) 💩Shit! • Scheiße! What one says when “shit” would be a bit too strong for the situation. • Mist! (literally “manure”) Breakfast! • Frühstück! (literally “early-piece”) Bitch. • Miststück. (literally “manure-piece”) Please. / Here you are. *puts food on table* / You’re welcome. • Bitte. Thanks. • Danke. My decision and final word on this issue! • Basta! (from Spanish) Fraud! • Betrug! Move! • Bewegung! (literally “movement”) Hurry! • Beeilung! Stay! • Bleib! (order addressing a single person) Fatcat! • Bonze! (from Japanese 「bonsō」, “monk”; European usage started with complaints about clerical fatcats) Great performance! • Bravo! (from Italian) Golly! • Donnerwetter! (literally “thunder-weather”) Charge! • Attacke! Fooled! • Ausgetrickst! That is ruled out. • Ausgeschlossen. (basically “out-locked”) Permitted as an exception. • Ausnahmsweise. „Ausnahme“ means “exception”. Turn off whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Ausmachen! Turn on whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Anmachen! Whatever. • Egal. Sorry! • Entschuldigung! What one says when feeling only like ¾ of what would merit a full “sorry”. • Tschuldigung! Macabre. • Makaber. It's from «macabre» by the French who got that probably from the Arabic «maqābir», “graves”. Just a sec! • Sekunde! Just a minute! • Minute! Lunch! • Mittagessen! (literally “noon-food”) Depending on region and trade, this utterance can mean “enjoy your lunch break” or “hello” or “enjoy taking a shit”. • Mahlzeit! I don’t mind if you do that. • Meinetwegen. (literally “on my behalf”) When one wants to greet with the question-like sound that some greetings have without that getting mistaken for a literal question. • Na? Don’t act cocky like that! • Nanana! What one says to remind a cocky kid that its height does not surpass that of three cheeses. • Dreikäsehoch! Brat! • Rotzlöffel! (literally “snot-spoon”) Seriously? • Ernsthaft? Gotcha! • Erwischt! ❌False! • Falsch! Fascinating. • Faszinierend. Finished. • Fertig.
>>6622 Part 2/4: Attach whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Dranmachen! Detach whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Abmachen! Request denied. • Abgelehnt. Request granted. • Genehmigt. Okey-dokey! • Gebongt! Loafer! • Faulpelz! (literally “lazy-pelt”) Fire! • Feuer! Cunt! • Fotze! How fucking two-faced! • Hinterfotzig! (basically “behind-the-back-cunty”) Brash! • Frech! Exactly! • Genau! Ingenious! • Genial! Grisly! • Grauenhaft! Ugly! • Hässlich! When one can't decide between saying “grisly” and “ugly”. • Grässlich! It sounds like the baby of „grauenhaft” and „hässlich”. Coward! • Feigling! Weakling! • Weichei! (literally “soft-egg”) Leave! • Geh! (order addressing a single person) Great and/or horny! • Geil! Congrats! • Glückwunsch! Stop doing that! • Aufhören! The word „hören“ means to hear and you can hear better when you stop doing anything. Look! • Guck! (order addressing a single person) Now ya see. • Siehste. (addressing a single person) See ya. • Wiedersehen. (literally “again see”) The equivalent of “see ya” for telephone conversation. • Wiederhören. (literally “again hear”) 👍Good. • Gut. What one calls a person who performs actions signaling moral superiority without bringing much or any positive change. • Gutmensch! (literally “good-human”) Huh? • Hä? What? • Was? Hello. • Hallo. Stop! • Halt! Outstanding. • Hervorragend. Help! • Hilfe! Hooray! • Hurra! Whore! • Hure! Son of a whore! • Hurensohn! What one says to the kind of person who can’t remember the translation of this. • Idiot! What one says when „Idiot“ is a bit too harsh. • Esel! (literally “donkey”) Interesting! • Interessant! Eww! • Igitt! Disgusting! • Widerlich! Yes. • Ja. No. • Nein. Yes and no. • Jein. Who? • Wer? Where? • Wo? Here! • Hier! There! • Da! Over there! • Dort! Enemy of the working class! • Klassenfeind!
>>6623 Part 3/4: Come! • Komm! (order addressing a single person) 📷Smile! • Lächeln! Slower! • Langsamer! 😒Boring! • Langweilig! What one shouts to start a race. • Los! Stop grabbing/touching/holding! • Loslassen! Police • Polizei! ☣@☠#☢✳ coppers! • Bullenschweine! „Bulle“, “ox”, means “policeman” in colloquial language (formally „Polizist“). „Schwein“ means pig. Louder! • Lauter! Tasty! • Lecker! Yeah, can be done easily! • Locker! (literally “loose”) Lie! • Lüge! Liar! • Lügner! Lying journalists! • Lügenpresse! 😆Funny! • Lustig! Strange. • Seltsam. 🤔Funny-strange. • Komisch. A machine-related term used by dog-haters. • Kotpumpe! (literally “excrement-pump”) Mum! • Mama! Dad! • Papa! Oh what's this? • Nanu? Kind. (person) / OK. (product) • Nett. Of course. • Natürlich. It is doable to follow the steps of what you presented and arrive at where you arrived at. • Nachvollziehbar. Take it! • Nimm! (order addressing a single person) What one says when one is surprised by a problem or by how big the problem is. • Oha! Break! • Pause! 🐀Rat! • Ratte! Come in! • Herein! Get out! • Raus! Put in whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Reinmachen! Pull out whatever thing(s) depending on context! • Rausmachen! ✅Correct. • Richtig. Silence! • Ruhe! Bummer. • Schade. Checkmate. • Schachmatt. „Schach“ means “Chess”. You are dressed in a stylish way! • Schick! Lickspittle! • Schleimer! „Schleim“ means “slime.” Limp dick! • Schlappschwanz! „Schwanz“ means “tail”, but also “dick”. Time's up! • Schluss! Faster! • Schneller! Shut up! • Schnauze! It's the shortened version of „Halt die Schnauze!“ – Basically “Shut your snout!” Scrounger! • Schnorrer! Shocking! • Schockierend! Beautiful. • Schön. Guilty! • Schuldig! Pigdog! • Schweinehund! Faggot! • Schwuchtel! What one screams during a soccer match when the referee makes a wrong decision. • Skandal! Sit down! • Hinsetzen!
>>6624 Part 4/4: 👎Bad. • Schlecht. Surely. • Sicherlich. Victory! • Sieg! That’s a sensible proposal. • Sinnvoll. (literally “sense-full”) That proposal doesn’t make sense and it’s pointless and I’m losing my will to live hearing this. • Sinnlos. Very neat! • Spitze! (literally “peak”) What one says to a student who is equally nerd and careerist. • Streber! We're going on strike! • Streik! (just the word for “strike”) Cute! • Süß! (literally “sweet”) How? • Wie? *demonstrates doing something* That’s how you do it! • So! Meaningless noise one makes while the language module of the brain hasn't booted up yet. • So… Die! • Stirb! (order addressing a single person; to address several without learning plural form, repeat order until reaching the desired amount) Sad. • Traurig. Bye! • Tschüss! And? • Und? 😡Maddening! • Unerhört! Unfathomable. • Unfassbar. 🤯Unbelievable! • Unglaublich! Impossible! • Unmöglich! (just „möglich“ means “possible”, of course) Suspicious. • Verdächtig. Understandable. • Verständlich. Understood. • Verstanden. Agreed. • Einverstanden. The „ein“ part means “one” and „Verstand“ means “reasoning ability”; it’s like the minds are fusing into one metaphorically here. Damned! • Verdammt! Traitor! • Verräter! The verb „verraten“ means to snitch, but also to tell the solution to a riddle. Traitor(s) of the people! • Volksverräter! Almost always this refers to politicians. Loser! • Verlierer! 🤪Crazy. • Verrückt. Promise! • Versprochen! You eat so much! • Vielfraß! Basically “much-ate”, this word for “glutton” & “wolverine” uses a verb that is usually reserved for animals. Careful! • Vorsicht! Forward! • Vorwärts! Why? • Warum? We also got another word for “why”, „wieso“ and there's also our OTHER other word for “why”, „weshalb“. To the left! • Links! To the right! • Rechts! Wanker! • Wichser! Really? • Wirklich? Wonderful! • Wunderbar! Show! • Zeig! (order addressing a single person) Remove this dirt! / Put this away! • Wegmachen! Remove this from the top! • Runtermachen! In a longer sentence it might also mean “to bully”. Put this on top! • Draufmachen! Very clean and orderly! • Picobello! (origin: a parody of Italian) Props! • Respekt! What one says when one day’s work hours end. • Feierabend! (literally “celebration-evening”) Supper! • Abendbrot! (literally “evening-bread”) The smallest possible micro-aggression one can hurl at ethnic Germans. • Kartoffel! (literally “potato”) Sheer nonsense. • Quark. This word of Slavic origin also refers to a type of dairy product. 🍻Cheers! • Prost!
>>6479 Found a couple things. There are some pricey e-books on prismatext.com based on popular works in the public domain (Sherlock Holmes, Jules Verne, Charles Dickens…) The text is almost entirely in English, with a few sentence fragments translated into the target language. The reader is encouraged to first try to feel what it means from the context. You can click on any such fragment to get the translation. Seems like an OK idea for people who want to learn a bit with practically no effort and who are already interested in reading the particular titles, but surely this takes forever compared to doing flash cards. There's a free demonstration of the approach, the short fairy tale "The Emperor's New Clothes". I don't have the impression that much thought went into making these. The same books are offered in variations for many target languages and going by the demo it seems that no matter the target language, they are almost entirely translating the same set of words. I suspect they made their choices based on minimizing vocabulary overlap for those who buy several of their titles with practically no consideration of how English and the target language relate to each other (sound shifts) and how long words are often made of meaningful components. I suppose one could make a browser plugin that does the same as prismatext. (I think a great approach that doesn't slow down reading too much would be to only translate words that already appeared among the 20 words or so before and just highlight that earlier word when hovering the mouse pointer.) Perhaps something like that already exists. There is a book called "Spanish Stories" by Angel Flores that has a very good choice of stories in Spanish with English translation and information (in English) about the authors. However, it is rather complex Spanish and the translation is not presented in the most direct fashion sentence by sentence. So reading this is not easy. There is also an appendix with translations of some words (it is assumed that you already have the most basic vocabulary down). It's better to read the paper version of this than the ebook. The ebooks on interlinearbooks.com use the best method of directly showing the gloss under the text in the target language! I haven't read anything by them yet except the screenshots on their website, but this looks very promising.

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